Erectile Dysfunction Investigation and Treatment

Erectile dysfunction, also known as sexual impotence, is the chronic difficulty to achieve or maintain an erection long enough to have sexual intercourse.

Signs and symptoms

  • Loss of sexual desire
  • Inability to get a firm erection
  • Inability to maintain a firm erection long enough to have intercourse


Erectile dysfunction can be caused by psychological or physical reasons as well as a combination of the two.

Psychological causes include:

  • Stress
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Mental health disorders

Physical causes include:

  • Clogged blood vessels
  • Injuries to nerves or arteries that cause an erection
  • Heart disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Trauma to the pelvic area or spinal cord
  • Peyronie's disease (formation of a scar inside the penis)
  • Tobacco, alcohol, or substance abuse


If left untreated, erectile dysfunction can result in an unsatisfactory conjugal relationship, loss of self-esteem, and worsening depression and anxiety.


A diagnosis of erectile dysfunction is based on a discussion of your symptoms, a physical and psychological examination, blood and urine tests, and an ultrasound evaluation.


The various treatment options for erectile dysfunction include:

  • Oral medications
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Urethral suppositories
  • Testosterone replacement
  • Psychological counselling
  • Penis pump
  • Penile implants